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Thus the CPSA supported the 1922 white miners' strike whose main objective was the protection of the job reservation regime for white workers.
The Communist International, the Comintern, intervened in the form of the famous 1928 "Native Republic" resolution which called upon the SACP to work with the nationalist movement for the establishment of the national democratic order.
The Congress alliance was also important in that it enabled the ANC as an organisation then open only to Africans, to co-operate intimately, both organisationally and politically, with Indians and Coloureds as oppressed minorities.
This "alliance" was however to undergo change, both in substance and definition, in subsequent decades.
The history of the South African Communist Party (SACP), formed in 1921 as the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) and subsequently banned in 1950, has generated a very rich and fascinating literature.
During the first phase of its existence, between 1921 and the early 1930s, the CPSA battled with the reality of being a largely white organisation that had to adapt its Marxism-Leninism to conditions in which the African majority, irrespective of class affiliation, were subjected to one of the most oppressive systems of settler colonial rule.
However, this study will divide the literature in question into three chronologically-determined categories.
When the ANC and other organisations were banned in 1960, the SACP became part of the formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation" or simply "MK"), an organisation established to launch the armed struggle.1During the first phase of its underground existence, between 19, the SACP was able, at least partially, to resolve the race-class debate that had occupied the organisation since its formation and in the 1930s in particular.
The relationship between the struggle for socialism and the struggle against colonialism was resolved thanks to the development in the 1950s of the thesis that came to be known as Colonialism of a Special Type (CST).
2The CST was to be incorporated into the programme adopted at the SACP's 5th Congress, held underground in 1962 inside the country.
The new programme, The Road to South African Freedom,contained a very detailed development of the CST as a theory on which basis the Party could fight for socialism and exercise its vanguard role as conceived by Lenin, and, at the same time, take part in the struggle against colonialism under the leadÂership of the ANC.